New England is the oldest clearly defined region of the United States, and it predates the American Revolution by more than years. The English Pilgrims were Puritans fleeing religious persecution in England who established the first colony in New England in Farming, fishing, and lumbering prospered, as did whaling and sea trading. New England writers and events in the region helped launch and sustain the American Revolution, and the American War of Independence began when fighting erupted between British troops and Massachusetts militia in the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
The region later became a stronghold of the conservative Federalist Party. By the s, the region was the center of the American anti-slavery movementand was the leading force in American literature and higher education.
It was at the center of the Industrial Revolution in the United States, with many textile mills and machine shops operating byand was the manufacturing center of the entire United States for much of that century. It played an important role during and after the American Civil War as a fervent intellectual, political, and cultural promoter of abolitionism and civil rights, new plymouth dating.
Manufacturing in the United States began to shift south and west during the 20th century, new plymouth dating, and New England experienced a sustained period of economic decline and deindustrialization. By the beginning of the 21st century, however, the region had become a center for technology, weapons manufacturing, scientific research, and financial services.
New England was inhabited by Algonquian -speaking tribes when the first colonists arrived, including the Abenakinew plymouth dating, the Penobscotthe Pequotthe Wampanoagand many others. They referred to the region as Norumbeganamed for a fabled city that was supposed to exist there. Prior to the arrival of colonists, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire and Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine.
The Connecticut region was inhabited by the Mohegan and Pequot tribes prior to colonization. The Connecticut River Valley linked different tribes in cultural, linguistic, and political ways. As early asFrenchDutchand English traders began to trade metal, glass, and cloth for local beaver pelts.
The purpose of both was to claim land for England and trade. These were privately funded proprietary ventures, and the purpose of each was to claim land for England, trade, and return a profit. The name "New England" was officially sanctioned on November 3, when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Korean gay dating site Council for New Englandnew plymouth dating, a joint stock company established to colonize and govern the region.
In Decemberthe permanent settlement of Plymouth Colony was established by the PilgrimsEnglish Puritan separatists who arrived on the Mayflower. They held a feast of gratitude which became part of the American tradition of Thanksgiving. Plymouth Colony had a small population and size, and it was absorbed into Massachusetts Bay Colony in The Massachusetts Bay Colony was established in with its 100 free online international dating sites city of Boston established in Puritans began to immigrate from England in large numbers during this period, and they established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in with settlers.
They sought to reform the Church of England by creating a new, pure church in the New World. By20, had arrived, although many died soon after arrival. The Puritans created a deeply religious, socially tight-knit, and politically innovative culture that still influences the modern United States.
Roger Williams preached religious toleration, separation of Church and Stateand a complete break with the Church of England. He was banished from Massachusetts for his theological views and led a group south to found Providence in It merged with other settlements to new plymouth dating the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantationswhich became a haven for Baptists, Quakers, Jews, and others, including Anne Hutchinson who had been banished during the Antinomian Controversy.
On March 3,the Connecticut Colony was granted a charter and established its own government. The nearby New Haven Colony was absorbed by Connecticut. Vermont was then unsettled, and the territories of New Hampshire and Maine were then governed by Massachusetts. King James II of England became concerned about the increasingly independent ways of the colonies, in particular their self-governing charters, open flouting of the Navigation Actsand increasing military power.
He decreed the Dominion of New England inan administrative union of all the New England colonies. The union was imposed from the outside and removed nearly all the popularly elected leaders, and it was highly unpopular among the colonists. The Connecticut Colony refused to deliver their charter to dominion Governor Edmund Andros inso he sent an armed contingent to seize it.
According to popular legend, the colonists hid the charter inside the Charter Oak tree. King James was removed from the throne in the Glorious Revolution ofand Andros was arrested and sent back to England by the colonists during the Boston revolt. Most of the colonial charters were significantly modified after the Glorious Revolution inwith the appointment of Royal Governors to nearly every colony.
An uneasy tension existed between the Royal Governors, their officers, and the elected governing bodies in the colonies. The governors wanted essentially unlimited powers, and the different layers of locally elected officials resisted as best they could. In most cases, local towns continued operating as self-governing bodies, as they had done previously, and ignored the Royal Governors whenever possible.
The New England colonies were not formally united again untilwhen all thirteen colonies declared themselves independent states in a larger union called the United States of America. The regional economy grew rapidly in the 17th century, thanks to heavy immigration, high birth rates, low death rates, and an abundance of inexpensive farmland.
Between andabout 20, Puritans arrived, settling mostly near Boston; afterfewer than 50 immigrants arrived per year. The average size of a family was 7. About 27 percent of the population was composed of men between 16 and 60 years old.
The New England colonies were settled largely by farmers, who became relatively self-sufficient. Later, New England's economy began to focus on crafts and trade, in contrast to the Southern colonies, whose agrarian economy focused more heavily on foreign and domestic trade. Economically, New England fulfilled the expectations of its Puritan founders. The Puritan economy was based on the efforts of self-supporting farmsteads who traded only for goods that they could not produce themselves, unlike the cash crop-oriented plantations of the Chesapeake region.
The region's economy grew steadily over the entire colonial era, despite the lack of a staple crop that could be exported. All the colonies fostered economic growth by subsidizing projects that improved the infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, inns, and ferries. They gave bounties and monopolies to sawmills, grist mills, iron mills, fulling mills which treated clothsalt works, and glassworks.
Most important, colonial legislatures set up a legal system that was conducive to business enterprise by resolving disputes, enforcing contracts, and protecting property rights. Hard work and entrepreneurship characterized the region, as the Puritans and Yankees endorsed the " Protestant Work Ethic " which enjoined men to work hard as part of their divine calling. New England conducted a robust trade within the English domain in the midth century. They exported pickled beef and pork to the Caribbean, onions and potatoes from the Connecticut Valley, codfish to feed their slaves, northern pine and oak staves from which the planters constructed containers to ship their sugar and molasses, Narragansett Pacers from Rhode Island, and "plugs" to run sugar mills.
The benefits of growth were widely distributed, with even farm laborers better off at the end of the colonial period.
The growing population led to shortages of good farm land on which young families could establish themselves; one result was to delay marriage, and another was to move to new lands farther west.
In the towns and cities, there was strong entrepreneurship and a steady increase in the specialization of labor. Wages for men went up steadily before ; new occupations were opening for women, including weaving, teaching, and tailoring.
The region bordered New France, and in numerous wars the British poured money in to purchase supplies, build roads, and pay colonial soldiers. The coastal ports began to specialize in fishing, international trade, ship building, and whaling after These factors combined with growing urban markets for farm products and allowed the economy to flourish despite the lack of technological innovation.
Benjamin Franklin inafter examining the wretched hovels in Scotland surrounding the opulent mansions of the land owners, said that in New England every man is a property owner, "has a Vote in public Affairs, lives in a tidy, warm House, has plenty of good Food and Fuel, with new plymouth dating clothes from Head to Foot, the Manufacture perhaps of his own family. The first public schools in America were established by the Puritans in New England during the 17th century.
Boston Latin School was founded in and is the oldest public school in the United States. At first, the rudiments of literacy and arithmetic were taught inside the family. By the midth century, the role of the schools had expanded to such an extent that many of the educational tasks traditionally handled by parents became the responsibility of the schools. All the New England colonies required towns to set up schools. Inthe Massachusetts Bay Colony made education compulsory, and other New England colonies followed.
Similar statutes were adopted in other colonies in the s and s. The schools were all male, new plymouth dating few facilities for girls.
They were publicly supplied at the local town level; they were not free but were supported by tuition or rate bills. The larger towns in New England opened grammar schools, the forerunner of the modern high school. Hopkins School in New Haven, Connecticut was another.
By the s, most had been replaced by private academies. By the early 19th century, New England operated a network of elite private high schools now called "prep schools" typified by Phillips Andover AcademyPhillips Exeter Academyand Deerfield Academy They became coeducational in the s and remain highly prestigious in the 21st century.
Harvard College was founded by the colonial legislature in and named in honor of benefactor John Harvard. Most of the funding came from the colony, but the college began to collect an endowment.
Harvard was founded for the purpose of training young men for the ministry, and it won general support from the Puritan colonies. Yale College was founded in and was relocated to New Haven in The conservative Puritan ministers of Connecticut had grown dissatisfied with the more liberal theology of Harvard and wanted their own school to train orthodox ministers. Dartmouth College was chartered in and grew out of a school for Indians; it was moved to Hanover, New Hampshire in New England was the center of revolutionary activity in the decade before On June 9,Rhode Island residents banded together and burned the HMS Gaspee in response to that ship's harassment of merchant shipping—and smuggling—in Narragansett Bay.
Massachusetts politicians Samuel AdamsJohn Adamsand John Hancock rose up as leaders in the growing resentment toward English rule. New Englanders were very proud of their political freedoms and local democracy, which they felt was increasingly threatened by the English government. The main grievance was taxation, which colonists argued could only be imposed by their own legislatures and not by the Parliament in London. Their political cry was " no taxation without representation.
A ship was planning to land tea in Boston on December 16,and Patriots associated with the Sons of Liberty raided the ship and dumped all the tea into the harbor. This closed the port of Boston, the economic lifeblood of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and it ended self-government, putting the people under military rule. British troops were forced back to Boston by the local militias on the 19th in the Battles of Lexington and Concord where the famous " shot heard 'round the world " was fired.
The British army controlled only the city of Boston, and it was quickly brought under siege. He forced the British to evacuate in March After that, the main warfare moved south, but the British made repeated raids along the coast, seizing Newport, Rhode Island and parts of Maine for a while.
Labour say their victory in the local elections is a "triumph for Plymouth" as they vow to improve lives. Labour has listed pledges, which it promises to implement after seizing control of Plymouth in the local elections. The party stormed to victory in the early hours, toppling senior Tory councillors to end the night with 31 seats out of the 57 on Plymouth City Council. They took seats in Peverell , Ham and Honicknowle in what new council leader Tudor Evans declared a "triumph for Plymouth".
Headlining promises include creating 1, new car parking spaces in the city, and new low-cost rented homes for older people, veterans, single people and disabled people.
Some of the homes would also help alleviate homelessness. Elsewhere, more CCTV on housing estates to tackle anti-social behaviour is pledged, as well as a commitment to giving the city cleaner, safer streets , with trees pruned, drains cleared and a programme of repairs to roads and pavements.
One eye-catching Labour promise is to end the controversial practice of fining parents who take their children out of school for an annual holiday. The party pledges to safeguard the airport site. Labour also says it will campaign to bring the A38 to motorway standard. Labour pledges include new, low-cost rented housing for older people, veterans, single Plymothians and disabled residents.
And the party also vows that it will tackle homelessness and start building bungalows again. A controversial issue will be tackled head on as there will be an end to fining parents who take their children out of school for an annual family holiday. One thousand new car parking spaces will be created across the city, easing issues for local residents and those working in the city centre. Clean, safe streets, with trees pruned, drains and gullies cleared are high on the agenda and roads and pavements are to be repaired, ensuring the safety of the most vulnerable in society.
The Manifesto lays out plenty of ambitious plans, like building new factories and offices to attract more investment in Plymouth. Are the streets clean, are the pavements trip-free, are the trees maintained and is the rubbish collected? Video Loading Video Unavailable. Click to play Tap to play. The video will start in 8 Cancel Play now. Election night in Plymouth. Labour's pledges Download. Read More Election night in Plymouth.
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