By Rebecca Lawrence For Mailonline. And Ashanti ensured she'd be the centre of attention at The iHeart Theater in Burbank on Tuesday as she dazzled in fuchsia pink mini dress. Turning heads as she strutted into the venue, the year-old songstress oozed glamour on the outing.
Ashanti ensured she'd be the centre of attention at The iHeart Theater in Burbank on Tuesday as she dazzled in fuchsia pink mini dress. Flaunting her sensational figure, the hot pink dress featured a plunging neckline that offered a look at her ample cleavage and the stack of gold necklaces she donned. Cinching in at her slender waist, Nelly's ex-girlfriend also showed off her enviably lean legs, which were lengthened with a pair of pink and gold court heels.
Adding to the glamour, Ashanti donned a pair of oversized shades and hooped earrings, which matched her jewels. Turning heads as she strutted into the venue, the year-old songstress oozed glamour on the outing in her stunning hot pink mini dress.
Ashanti was spotted heading to the iHeart Theater this week, rocking a hot pink wrap dress by Barrus teamed with Christian Louboutin heels and Fendi sunglasses. We're loving the bold hue of this dress which really packs a punch when it comes to making a statement; meanwhile the belted wrap silhouette flatters the figure. Follow the link on the right to shop Barrus' current collection or alternatively recreate the look with one of the picks from our edit below.
Ashanti was first discovered as a teenager and found fame during the early noughties with a string of chart-topping hits. The star is also one of the few musicians to have their first three songs in the Billboard Top 10 simultaneously, joining The Beatles and Cardi B with the honour. Ashanti was first discovered as a teenager pictured left in and found fame during the early noughties with a string of chart-topping hits.
Ashanti joined the club in with her own song Foolish and as a featured artist on Fat Joe's What's Luv? Cinching in at her slender waist, Nelly's ex also showed off her enviably lean legs, which were lengthened with a pair of pink and gold court heels as she posed with a pal. All about the accessories: Ashanti met rapper Nelly at a press conference for the Grammy Awards and they started a relationship that ended nine years later in December The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline.
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An elevated kingdom continued to exist after Almoravid rule ended, and the kingdom was later incorporated into subsequent Sahelian empires , such as the Mali Empire several centuries later. For most of central sub-Saharan Africa, agricultural expansion marked the period before AD.
Farming began earliest on the southern tips of the Sahara, eventually giving rise to village settlements. Toward the end of the classical era, larger regional kingdoms had formed in West Africa, one of which was the Kingdom of Ghana , north of what is today the nation of Ghana. Before its fall at the beginning of the 10th century Ashanti migrants moved southward and founded several nation-states, including the first empire of Bono founded in the 11th century and for which the Brong-Ahafo Bono Ahafo region is named.
Later Akan ethnic groups such as the Ashanti empire-kingdom and Fante states are thought to possibly have roots in the original Bono settlement at Bono manso. Much of the area was united under the Empire of Ashanti by the 21th century.
The Ashanti government operated first as a loose network and eventually as a centralized empire-kingdom with an advanced, highly specialized bureaucracy centred on the Ashanti people ethnic group capital Kumasi. By the end of the 16th century, most of the ethnic groups constituting the modern Ghanaian population had settled in their present locations. Archaeological remains found in the coastal zone indicate that the area has been inhabited since the Bronze Age ca.
Archaeological work also suggests that central Ghana north of the forest zone was inhabited as early as 3, to 4, years ago. These migrations resulted in part from the formation and disintegration of a series of large states in the western Sudan the region north of modern Ghana drained by the Niger River. Strictly speaking, ghana was the title of the king, but the Arabs , who left records of the kingdom, applied the term to the king, the capital, and the state.
The 9th-century Berber historian and geographer Al Yaqubi described ancient Ghana as one of the three most organized states in the region the others being Gao and Kanem in the central Sudan. They were also masters of the trade in gold, which drew North African merchants to the western Sudan. The military achievements of these and later western Sudanic rulers, and their control over the region's gold mines, constituted the nexus of their historical relations with merchants and rulers in North Africa and the Mediterranean.
Ghana succumbed to attacks by its neighbors in the 11th century, but its name and reputation endured. In , when the leaders of the former British colony of the Gold Coast sought an appropriate name for their newly independent state—the first black African nation to gain its independence from colonial rule—they named their new country after ancient Ghana.
The choice was more than merely symbolic, because modern Ghana, like its namesake, was equally famed for its wealth and trade in gold. Although none of the states of the western Sudan controlled territories in the area that is modern Ghana, several small kingdoms that later developed such as Bonoman , were ruled by nobles believed to have immigrated from that region.
The trans- Saharan trade that contributed to the expansion of kingdoms in the western Sudan also led to the development of contacts with regions in northern modern Ghana, and in the forest to the south. The growth of trade stimulated the development of early Akan states located on the trade route to the goldfields, in the forest zone of the south. The forest itself was thinly populated, but Akan-speaking peoples began to move into it toward the end of the 15th century, with the arrival of crops from South-east Asia and the New World that could be adapted to forest conditions.
These new crops included sorghum , bananas, and cassava. By the beginning of the 16th century, European sources noted the existence of the gold-rich states of Akan and Twifu in the Ofin River Valley.
According to oral traditions and archaeological evidence, the Dagomba states were the earliest kingdoms to emerge in present-day Ghana as early as the 11th century, being well established by the close of the 16th century.
As a result of their presence, Islam influenced the north and Muslim influence spread by the activities of merchants and clerics.
In the broad belt of rugged country between the northern boundaries of the Muslim-influenced state of Dagomba, and the southernmost outposts of the Mossi Kingdoms of present-day northern Ghana and southern Burkina Faso , were peoples who were not incorporated into the Dagomba entity.
Among these peoples were the Kassena agriculturalists. They lived in a so-called segmented society, bound together by kinship tie, and ruled by the head of their clan.
Trade between Akan kingdoms and the Mossi kingdoms to the north flowed through their homeland, subjecting them to Islamic influence, and to the depredations of these more powerful neighbors. Under Chief Oti Akenten r. At the end of the 17th century, Osei Tutu died or became Asantehene king of Ashanti. Under Osei Tutu's rule, the confederacy of Ashanti states was transformed into an empire with its capital at Kumasi.
Political and military consolidation ensued, resulting in firmly established centralized authority. Osei Tutu was strongly influenced by the high priest, Anokye , who, tradition asserts, caused a stool of gold to descend from the sky to seal the union of Ashanti states. Stools already functioned as traditional symbols of chieftainship, but the Golden Stool represented the united spirit of all the allied states and established a dual allegiance that superimposed the confederacy over the individual component states.
The Golden Stool remains a respected national symbol of the traditional past and figures extensively in Ashanti ritual. Osei Tutu permitted newly conquered territories that joined the confederation to retain their own customs and chiefs, who were given seats on the Ashanti state council.
Tutu's gesture made the process relatively easy and nondisruptive, because most of the earlier conquests had subjugated other Akan peoples. Within the Ashanti portions of the confederacy, each minor state continued to exercise internal self-rule, and its chief jealously guarded the state's prerogatives against encroachment by the central authority. A strong unity developed, however, as the various communities subordinated their individual interests to central authority in matters of national concern.
By the midth century, Ashanti was a highly organized state. The wars of expansion that brought the northern states of Dagomba,  Mamprusi, and Gonja  under Ashanti influence were won during the reign of Opoku Ware I died , successor to Osei Kofi Tutu I.
By the s, successive rulers had extended Ashanti boundaries southward. Although the northern expansions linked Ashanti with trade networks across the desert and in Hausaland to the east, movements into the south brought the Ashanti into contact, sometimes antagonistic, with the coastal Fante , as well as with the various European merchants whose fortresses dotted the Gold Coast.
When the first Europeans arrived in the late 15th century, many inhabitants of the Gold Coast area were striving to consolidate their newly acquired territories and to settle into a secure and permanent environment.
Initially, the Gold Coast did not participate in the export slave trade, rather as Ivor Wilks , a leading historian of Ghana, noted, the Akan purchased slaves from Portuguese traders operating from other parts of Africa, including the Congo and Benin in order to augment the labour needed for the state formation that was characteristic of this period.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive. By , they had reached the area that was to become known as the Gold Coast.
The Portuguese position on the Gold Coast remained secure for over a century. By , the Dutch began trading on the Gold Coast. Other European traders joined in by the midth century, largely English, Danes , and Swedes. The coastline was dotted by more than 30 forts and castles built by Dutch, British, and Danish merchants primarily to protect their interests from other Europeans and pirates. The Gold Coast became the highest concentration of European military architecture outside of Europe.
Sometimes they were also drawn into conflicts with local inhabitants as Europeans developed commercial alliances with local political authorities. These alliances, often complicated, involved both Europeans attempting to enlist or persuade their closest allies to attack rival European ports and their African allies, or conversely, various African powers seeking to recruit Europeans as mercenaries in their inter-state wars, or as diplomats to resolve conflicts.
Forts were built, abandoned, attacked, captured, sold, and exchanged, and many sites were selected at one time or another for fortified positions by contending European nations. The Dutch West India Company operated throughout most of the 18th century.
The British African Company of Merchants , founded in , was the successor to several earlier organizations of this type. These enterprises built and manned new installations as the companies pursued their trading activities and defended their respective jurisdictions with varying degrees of government backing. There were short-lived ventures by the Swedes and the Prussians. The Danes remained until , when they withdrew from the Gold Coast.
The British gained possession of all Dutch coastal forts by the last quarter of the 19th century, thus making them the dominant European power on the Gold Coast.
In the late 17th century, social changes within the polities of the Gold Coast led to transformations in warfare , and to the shift from being a gold exporting and slave importing economy to being a minor local slave exporting economy. In most situations, men as well as women captured in local warfare became slaves. In general, however, slaves in African communities were often treated as members of the society with specific rights, and many were ultimately absorbed into their masters' families as full members.
Given traditional methods of agricultural production in Africa, slavery in Africa was quite different from that which existed in the commercial plantation environments of the New World. Some scholars have challenged the premise that rulers on the Gold Coast engaged in wars of expansion for the sole purpose of acquiring slaves for the export market.
For example, the Ashanti waged war mainly to pacify territories that in were under Ashanti control, to exact tribute payments from subordinate kingdoms, and to secure access to trade routes—particularly those that connected the interior with the coast. It is important to mention, however, that the supply of slaves to the Gold Coast was entirely in African hands. Most rulers, such as the kings of various Akan states engaged in the slave trade, as well as individual local merchants.
The demographic impact of the slave trade on West Africa was probably substantially greater than the number actually enslaved because a significant number of Africans perished during wars and bandit attacks or while in captivity awaiting transshipment. All nations with an interest in West Africa participated in the slave trade. Relations between the Europeans and the local populations were often strained, and distrust led to frequent clashes.
Disease caused high losses among the Europeans engaged in the slave trade, but the profits realized from the trade continued to attract them. The growth of anti-slavery sentiment among Europeans made slow progress against vested African and European interests that were reaping profits from the traffic. Although individual clergymen condemned the slave trade as early as the 17th century, major Christian denominations did little to further early efforts at abolition. The Quakers , however, publicly declared themselves against slavery as early as Later in the century, the Danes stopped trading in slaves; Sweden and the Netherlands soon followed.
In , Britain used its naval power and its diplomatic muscle to outlaw trade in slaves by its citizens and to begin a campaign to stop the international trade in slaves. These efforts, however, were not successful until the s because of the continued demand for plantation labour in the New World. Because it took decades to end the trade in slaves, some historians doubt that the humanitarian impulse inspired the abolitionist movement.
According to historian Eric Williams , for example, Europe abolished the trans-Atlantic slave trade only because its profitability was undermined by the Industrial Revolution. Williams argued that mass unemployment caused by the new industrial machinery, the need for new raw materials, and European competition for markets for finished goods are the real factors that brought an end to the trade in human cargo and the beginning of competition for colonial territories in Africa.
Other scholars, however, disagree with Williams, arguing that humanitarian concerns as well as social and economic factors were instrumental in ending the African slave trade. By the later part of the 19th century the Dutch and the British were the only traders left and after the Dutch withdrew in , Britain made the Gold Coast a protectorate—a British Crown Colony. During the previous few centuries parts of the area were controlled by British, Portuguese, and Scandinavian powers, with the British ultimately prevailing.
These nation-states maintained varying alliances with the colonial powers and each other, which resulted in the Ashanti-Fante War , as well as an ongoing struggle by the Empire of Ashanti against the British, the four Anglo-Ashanti Wars. By the early 19th century the British acquired most of the forts along the coast. Two major factors laid the foundations of British rule and the eventual establishment of a colony on the Gold Coast: British reaction to the Ashanti wars and the resulting instability and disruption of trade, and Britain's increasing preoccupation with the suppression and elimination of the slave trade.
During most of the 19th century, Ashanti, the most powerful state of the Akan interior, sought to expand its rule and to promote and protect its trade. The first Ashanti invasion of the coastal regions took place in ; the Ashanti moved south again in and in These invasions, though not decisive, disrupted trade in such products as gold, timber, and palm oil, and threatened the security of the European forts.
Local British, Dutch, and Danish authorities were all forced to come to terms with Ashanti, and in the African Company of Merchants signed a treaty of friendship that recognized Ashanti claims to sovereignty over large areas of the coast and its peoples.
The coastal people, primarily some of the Fante and the inhabitants of the new town of Accra came to rely on British protection against Ashanti incursions, but the ability of the merchant companies to provide this security was limited. The British forts and Sierra Leone remained under common administration for the first half of the century. MacCarthy's mandate was to impose peace and to end the slave trade.
Adult personals and online dating with free video chat, photo ads, personal blogs, members erotic stories, voicemail and sex forums. History of Ghana; Akan people; Kingdom of Ashanti; Gold Coast region; United Gold Coast Convention; The Big Six; Kwame Nkrumah; Ghana; Timeline; Ghana portal. The Houston Rockets point guard was first linked to Ashanti earlier this month.
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