Psychology is the science of behavior and mindincluding conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brainsand all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest.
As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a socialbehavioralor cognitive scientist.
Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behaviorwhile also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perceptioncognitionwho is xenia goodwin datingemotion affectintelligencephenomenologymotivation conation v and irene dating, brain functioningand personality.
This extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationshipswho is xenia goodwin dating, including psychological resiliencefamily resilienceand other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind. In additionor in oppositionto employing empirical and deductive string dating app, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques.
Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatrywhereas social sciences most commonly draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology.
While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity, who is xenia goodwin dating. By many accounts psychology ultimately aims to benefit society.
Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings e. Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas  such as human development and agingsportshealthand the mediaas well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law.
InWilliam James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B.
Watsonwho in his manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior. Also since James defined it, the term more strongly connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. The ancient civilizations of EgyptGreeceChinaIndiaand Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology.
Historians note that Greek philosophers, including ThalesPlatoand Aristotle especially in his De Anima treatise addressed the workings of the mind. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confuciusand later from the doctrines of Buddhism. This body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting.
It frames the universe as a division of, and interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power. An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin—yang balance, and analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria.
Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi —Liu Zhi —and Wang Qingren — Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, and advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism.
A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, and Buddhismhave challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher awareness.
Yoga is a range of techniques used in pursuit of this goal. However, Indian doctrines influenced Western thinking via the Theosophical Societya New Age group which became popular among Euro-American intellectuals. Psychology was a popular topic in Enlightenment Europe. In Germany, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz — applied who is xenia goodwin dating principles of calculus to the mind, arguing that mental activity took joshua harris i kissed dating goodbye on an indivisible continuum—most notably, that among an infinity of human perceptions and desires, the difference between conscious and unconscious awareness is only a matter of degree.
Christian Wolff identified psychology as its own science, writing Psychologia empirica in and Psychologia rationalis in This notion advanced further under Immanuel Kantwho established the idea of anthropologywith psychology as an important subdivision. Adhd dating, Kant explicitly and notoriously rejected the idea of experimental psychology, writing that "the empirical doctrine of the soul can also never approach chemistry even as a david deangelo advanced dating techniques download art of analysis or experimental doctrine, for in it the manifold of inner observation can be separated only by mere division in thought, and cannot then be held separate and recombined at will but still less does another thinking subject suffer himself to be experimented upon to suit our purposeand even observation by itself already changes and displaces the state of the observed object.
However, this discipline did not yet embrace experimentation. Gustav Fechner began conducting psychophysics research in Leipzig in the s, articulating the principle that human perception of a stimulus varies logarithmically according to its intensity. Wundt, in turn, came to Leipzig University, establishing the psychological laboratory which brought experimental psychology to the world.
Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated who is xenia goodwin dating part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of material. Stanley Hall who studied with Wundt, formed a psychology lab at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland, which became internationally influential. Hall, in turn, trained Yujiro Motora, who brought experimental psychology, emphasizing psychophysics, to the Imperial University of Tokyo.
Catell, who also studied with eugenicist Francis Galtonwent on to found the Psychological Corporation. Wittmer focused on mental testing of children; Scott, on selection of employees.
Another student of Wundt, Edward Titchenercreated the psychology program at Cornell University and advanced a doctrine of "structuralist" psychology. Structuralism sought to analyze and classify different aspects of the mind, primarily through the method of introspection. In James wrote an influential book, The Principles of Psychologywhich expanded on the realm of structuralism, memorably described the human " stream of consciousness ", and interested many American students in the emerging discipline.
A different strain of experimentalism, with more connection to physiology, emerged in South America, under the leadership of Horacio G. This approach is based upon the idea that individuals experience things as unified wholes.
Rather than breaking down thoughts and behavior into smaller elements, as in structuralism, the Gestaltists maintained that whole of experience is important, and differs from the sum of its parts. Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghausa pioneer in the experimental study of memorywho developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlovwho discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed " classical conditioning " and applied to human beings.
The first meeting of the International Congress of Psychology took place in Paris, in Augustamidst the World's Fair celebrating the centennial of the French Revolution. William James was one of three Americans among the four hundred attendees. The American Psychological Association was founded soon after, in The International Congress continued to be held, at different locations in Europe, with wider international participation. Inthe Congress took place at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, attended by hundreds of members of the American Psychological Association  Tokyo Imperial University led the way in bringing the new psychology to the East, and from Japan these ideas diffused into China.
American psychology gained status during World War I, during which a standing committee headed by Robert Yerkes administered mental tests " Army Alpha " and " Army Beta " to almost 1. University of Michigan psychologist Dorwin Cartwright reported that university researchers began large-scale propaganda research in —, and "the last few months of the war saw a social psychologist become chiefly responsible for determining the week-by-week-propaganda policy for the United States Government.
In the s, the Rockefeller Foundation and Ford Foundation collaborated with the Central Intelligence Agency to fund research on psychological warfare. In Germany after World War Ipsychology held institutional power through the military, and subsequently expanded along with the rest of the military under the Third Reich.
Freudian psychoanalysts were expelled and persecuted under the anti-Jewish policies of the Nazi Party, and all psychologists had to distance themselves from Gay dating format and Adler. This psychotherapy aimed to align suitable Germans with the overall goals of the Reich; as described by one physician: Alexander Mitscherlich founded a prominent applied psychoanalysis journal called Psyche and with funding from the Rockefeller Foundation established the first clinical psychosomatic medicine division at Heidelberg University.
Inpsychology was integrated into the required studies of medical students. After the Russian Revolution, psychology was heavily promoted by the Bolsheviks as a way to engineer the "New Man" of socialism. Thus, university psychology departments trained large numbers of students, for whom positions were made available at schools, workplaces, cultural institutions, and in the military. An especial focus was pedologythe study of child development, regarding which Lev Vygotsky became a prominent writer.
Luriaand Aron Zalkind were denounced; Ivan Pavlov posthumously and Stalin himself were aggrandized as heroes of Soviet psychology. There emerged a new field called "engineering psychology" which studied mental aspects of complex jobs such as pilot and cosmonaut. Interdisciplinary studies became popular and scholars such as Georgy Shchedrovitsky developed systems theory approaches to human behavior. Twentieth-century Chinese psychology originally modeled the United States, with translations from American authors like William James, the establishment of university psychology departments and journals, and the establishment of groups including the Chinese Association of Psychological Testing and the Chinese Psychological Society Chinese psychologists were encouraged to focus on education and language learning, with the aspiration that virtual reality dating games would enable modernization and nationalization.
John Dewey, who lectured to Chinese audiences in —, had a significant influence on this doctrine. Chinese psychologists elaborated on Lenin's model of a "reflective" consciousness, envisioning an "active consciousness" tzu-chueh neng-tung-li able to transcend material conditions through hard work and ideological struggle.
They developed a concept of "recognition" jen-shih which referred the interface between individual perceptions and the socially accepted worldview. Failure to correspond with party doctrine was "incorrect recognition".
Most leading psychologists were educated in the United States, and the first concern of the Academy was re-education of these psychologists in the Soviet doctrines. Child psychology and pedagogy for nationally cohesive education remained a central goal of the discipline.
Several associations including the Association of Black Psychologists and the Asian American Psychological Association have arisen to promote non-European racial groups in the profession. The International Union recognizes 66 national psychology associations and at least 15 others exist. The Interamerican Society of Psychology, founded inaspires to promote psychology and coordinate psychologists across the Western Hemisphere.
It holds the Interamerican Congress of Psychology and had members in year The European Federation of Professional Psychology Associations, founded inrepresents 30 national associations with a total ofindividual members. At least 30 other international groups organize psychologists in different regions. In some places, governments legally regulate who can provide psychological services or represent themselves as a "psychologist".
Early practitioners of experimental psychology distinguished themselves from parapsychologywhich in the late nineteenth century enjoyed great popularity including the interest of scholars such as William Jamesand indeed constituted the bulk of what people called "psychology".
Parapsychology, hypnotismand psychism were major topics of the early International Congresses. But students of these fields were eventually ostractized, and more or less banished from the Congress in — As a discipline, psychology has long sought to fend off accusations that it is a "soft" science.
Philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn 's critique implied psychology overall was in a pre-paradigm state, lacking the agreement on overarching theory found in mature sciences such as chemistry and physics. Skeptics have suggested that personalitythinking mat franco dating, and emotioncannot be directly measured and are often inferred from subjective self-reports, which may be problematic.
Experimental psychologists have devised a variety of ways to indirectly measure these elusive phenomenological entities. Divisions still exist within the field, with some psychologists more oriented towards the unique experiences of individual humans, which cannot be understood only as data points within a larger population.
Critics inside and outside the field have argued that mainstream psychology has become increasingly dominated by a "cult of empiricism" which limits the scope of its study by using only methods derived from the physical sciences. Jean Grimshaw, for example, argues that mainstream psychological research has advanced a patriarchal agenda through its efforts to control behavior.
Psychologists generally consider the organism the basis of the mind, and therefore a vitally related area of study. Psychiatrists and neuropsychologists work at the interface of mind and body. Key research topics in this field include comparative psychologywhich studies humans in relation to other animals, and perception which involves the physical mechanics of sensation as well as neural and mental processing.
Dance Academy is an Australian children's television drama. Series one premiered in Australia on 31 May , the second series began on 12 March ,   and series three began on 8 July Dance Academy was announced as having been renewed for a second series of 26 episodes on 15 July The series was again executive produced by Joanna Werner.
This series follows Tara and her friends in their final year at the Academy, where they are focused on landing a job with The Company. The Academy students must deal with their professional futures being laid out for them; while some receive Company contracts, most do not. Christian must choose between dancing for the Company or teaching at the Sammy E. Lieberman Memorial Studio for kids who cannot afford a dance education.
In the end, he chooses teaching. Tara must come to terms with the fact she may never dance again due to her injury. Kat chooses an acting career after finishing third year. The movie based on the series, featuring most of the original cast, was released in Australia on 6 April From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Retrieved 5 July Australian Children's Television Foundation Retrieved 5 January Retrieved 13 April Retrieved 4 January Dance Academy Series 1".
Retrieved 8 October Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 11 December Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 29 June Retrieved 6 July Australian Broadcasting Corporation via Inside Film.
Tara Webster, a year-old from a farm in the Outback, travels to Sydney to audition for a spot at the National Academy of Dance, considered the best dance school in Australia. Tara arrives at the Academy and finds out that she is considered the worst dancer there. For Tara, making friends and earning the respect of her teachers is a challenge. She also deals with being homesick. Tara has a crush on Ethan which threatens Tara's friendship with Kat.
To determine which is more important, with Sammy's help, Tara makes a list of pros and cons about Ethan. However, Abigail emails Tara's list to the whole school. Christian is accepted into the Academy on scholarship by the director's agreement, saving Christian from juvenile detention while awaiting trial.
Kat feels betrayed by Tara's crush on Ethan. For a class assignment, Sammy and Abigail have to tie themselves together for 24 hours which they later discover only had to be "2—4 hours".
Tara and Christian have to ask each other questions for this same assignment where Christian tells her that his mother died. Tara is struggling to keep Ethan out of her thoughts. Sammy has to choose between compulsory Saturday ballet classes or his Synagogue services. Christian finds that he can not accept the rules of the Academy.
Kat quickly tries to help him get over his "peoplephobic" behaviour after his confrontation with Academy teacher Patrick. Sammy's dad tries to pull him out of the Academy because his grades are dropping; however, he then sees Sammy dancing and decides against it even though he doesn't support him.
Lieberman informs Sammy that until his grades improve he's grounded. Tara is surprised to discover Kat's mother is Natasha Willis, a world-acclaimed ballerina and Tara's idol. She agrees to teach the first years for a week. Mia, Sammy's girlfriend, surprises him by showing up at the Academy from exchange. He is then torn between his long distance relationship with her and new-found feelings for Abigail.
After Tara goes to see Natasha in her dressing room before another performance and Natasha makes her leave, she realises why Kat has been mad at her for thinking so highly of her mother.
Ethan requires a dancer for his hip-hop showcase and asks Christian on the basis of the favour he owes him; Christian agrees but opposes Ethan's choreography. Tara educates Kat in every aspect of the art form of crushes.
Tara is tired of being the youngest and dislikes that Ethan thinks of her as just a little kid. When Tara is seen talking with Damien Lang, a rumour is quickly spread that they are dating. Abigail does not want to accept the changes in her developing body. Kat creates a video of her dancing to one of teen popstar Myles Kelly's songs and then posts it on the Internet. The video becomes very popular and she is contacted by his music company, which invites her to dance in his next music video.
Christian and Ethan see each other as friendly rivals and become competitive. Christian's friend Aaron reveals the truth about the robbery they both committed. Abigail's control issues take control over her and she is seen stealing from a store. Tara is ecstatic when Ethan asks her to dance in his assessment piece. Kat, Sammy, Abigail and her little sister Paige go to an amusement park, however, Abigail fails to connect with Paige, who would rather be with Kat and Sammy.
The students are under heavy pressure during exam week. Tara tries to forget about her recent kiss with Ethan so she can focus on her exams.
Ethan attempts to kiss her again, but Tara flees. Abigail puts herself under a lot of pressure with the goal of scoring a scholarship. Sammy discovers she's been starving herself, but Abigail makes him promise not to say anything until the exams are over.
Open Week at the Academy is when parents watch their children in demonstration classes. Tara is glad to see her mother and father again, but when they arrive she discovers the farm is in financial trouble. Sammy is disappointed when his father does not attend any classes and he worries his father will never accept that he would like to be a dancer.
Tara returns from the school holidays and is happy that she has great friends, a boyfriend and a scholarship, and she is finally allowed to dance en pointe. Kat convinces Tara to come to a warehouse party in Sydney.
Tara and Christian become closer. Abigail cannot convince her therapist to let her return to ballet classes after her breakdown the previous semester. Kat is enamoured with her new boyfriend and skips classes to be with him.
Petra photographs Tara and Christian kissing, creating tension between them unbeknownst to Ethan. Kat is upset when her parents forget her 16th birthday; with revenge in mind she has a party at their home.
The party quickly fills with strangers joining in. Lucas tries to make a move while Kat is drunk. As school camp arrives, Tara is the outcast of the event after Kat's birthday party: Kat will not speak to her, and photos of Tara kissing Christian are showing up everywhere.
After a flashback of what Tara's week has been like, Christian tells Tara he likes her at the camping site. Sammy is forced to tutor Abigail in English, but Abigail decides that she's not smart enough and copies her essay off the internet.
Sammy tells Abigail she's "brilliant" and then kisses her. Petra Hoffman is excited when she is asked to stay at the Academy, however, the Berlin Ballet Company offers her a contract.
She struggles with the decision to stay at the Academy or take the job. Abigail continues to cause trouble for Tara.
Cristiano Ronaldo Height Weight Body Statistics. Cristiano Ronaldo Height - m, Weight kg, Measurements, Chest inches. See his dating history (all girlfriends' names), educational profile, personal favorites, interesting life . Oct 05, · If you've got pictures you want to share (celebrity or personal) or any comments/suggestions e-mail me at TC@assettracker.info Episode list Series 1 () Dance Academy features Tara Webster (Xenia Goodwin), a new student at Australia's National Academy of assettracker.info show presents the students at the Academy learning the intricacies of ballet and dance, and is primarily shown from Tara's perspective, along with fellow first year students Kat Karamakov (Alicia Banit.
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