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Post-Empire and Modern Mongolia. Mongolian Women in History. Historical MapsPeriod Photos: The Secret History of the Mongols Description. Defining Territories and Empire: How did the Mongols Link East and West? Selections from All the Khan's Horses. Persian Views of the Mongols and Europeans. Did Marco Polo Go to China? A Critical Appraisal by Prof. Armenian Historical Accounts of the Mongol Empire, mongolian dating culture. The Era of Chinggis Khan, - Genghis Khan, Father of Mongolian Democracy.

Genghis Khan, the Mongols and Asia. Changing Perceptions of Genghis Khan in Mongolia. Subedai's Campaigns in Europe. The Battle of Mohi Muhi in Hungary, Mongol Invasion of Poland, Battle of Liegnitz, Research into Mongol Art of War. The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, Mongols Meet Dating to girlfriend Match: The Battle of Ain-Jalut.

Khubilai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty. The Last Great Ruler? Khubilai Khan and His Advisors. Yuan Dynastic Statutes of Government. Yuan Dynasty Paper Money Photograph. Mongol Imperial Portraiture in the Yuan Dynasty. Chinese Theatre During the Yuan Dynasty. Chao Meng-fu, Yuan Dynasty Artist.

Hulegu Khan Founder of the Ilkhanid Dynasty. Hulegu Khan's Conquests Timeline. Art of the Book in the Ilkhanid Period. Developments of Arts in Iran Under the Mongols. Images and Description of the Mongol Illustrated History. Ilkhanid Buildings Style Image Archive. Tomb of Uljeytu in Sultaniya. Illustration Sections of the Court of Ghazan Khan. Chaghatay Khanate Period Ruins Images.

Tomb of Buyan Quli Khan in Bukhara, c. Ulus Chaghatay, Mongol or not? Analysis of the name 'Golden Horde'. Batu Khan, Conqueror of Russia, Golden Horde Summary from Wikpedia Encyclopedia. Mongol Invasion of Russia from Wikpedia Encyclopedia. Mongol Conquest of Bulgars. Golden Horde; Archeological Museum Relics. Golden Horde Mongolian dating culture Metropolitan Museum. Golden Horde and Tatar Scholarly Articles. Ethnic Diversity Among the Early Doukhbors. Mongol Invasions of Japan Animated Map.

Japan History Mongol Invasions. Khubilai Khan's Lost Fleet Found again. Assessment of the Impact of the Mongol Invasions of Japan. Scrolls of the Mongol Invasions Introduction. Scrolls of the Mongol Invasion Illustration.

Chronological Timeline of China, Korea and Japan. Mongols, Jurchens, and Manchus. Mongolia in Transition Manchu Emperor Kangshi and the Mongol Khans in the 's. Damdiny Sukhbataar, Mongolian Revolutionary Hero. Mongolia's Socialist Construction Under Tsedenbal, Brief Summary of Khalkin-Gol War of Portrait of Khubilai Khan's Consort Chabi. Nomadic Empires and Eurasian Expansion Outline. Nomadism and Pastoralism Worldwide, History and Analysis.

Nomads - The Facts. Nomads and Their Domesticated Animals. Tibetan Nomads Pastoral Production. Climate Oscillations and Nomad Migrations. Nomadic Eurasians, Archeological Analysis Articles.

Traditional Dwellings of the Nomads: Mongolian Nomads Method for Making Felt. Nomads People's Traditional Food Sources. The Nomads, Man, Animal, Nature.

Samoyedic Peoples of the European Tundra. Early Nomads of the Altaic region. Nomadic Art of the Eastern Eurasian Steppes. Shamanic Traditions of Mongols.

The Assyrian Church in the Mongolian Empire. Shamanism in Mongolia and Tibet. Buddhism in Mongolia After Legacy of Genghis Khan exhibition.

Mongol Empire Art and Architecture. Yuan Dynasty Art Theme of Enthronement in Shahnama, Ilkhanid Dynasty. Theme of Mourning in Shahnama, Ilkhanid Dynasty. View of the Upper Kherlen Valley, Mongolia. Monument to the Secret History of the Mongols in Mongolia.

Ruins of Khitan City, Mongolia. Early Example of Turkic Writing, Mongolia. Tue Cheh Monument, Ovorkhangai, Mongolia. Mongol and Central Asian Relics. Ancient Deer Stones, Western Mongolia. Ancient Stone Figure, Western Mongolia.

Ancient Armour and Helmets Yuan Dynasty. Monument to Sukhbataar, UlanBaatar, Mongolia. Traditional Styles and Scripts. Comparative Anecdotology and the Secret History of the Mongols.


Mongolian culture in most respects reflected the influence of China. For instance, there are Mongolian terms for the Chinese 60 year calendar cycle. On the other hand, significant other influences came into play. The writing system eventually adopted for Mongolian was the alphabet brought by Nestorian Christian missionaries into Central Asia, which was used to write other Altaic languages related to Mongolian, like Uighur and Manchu.

This script is deficient in letters for vowels, which always made it an ambiguous way to write these languages. Under Soviet influence, Mongolian now is mostly written in the Cyrillic alphabet.

This may have contributed to the military decline of Mongolia, since a large part of the population committed to monasticism does not make for anything like the nation of fierce warriors that stormed across Asia in the 13th century. Thus, Manchu China conquered Mongolia for the first time in its history in It remained part of China until , when the fall of the Manchus enabled the Mongols, like the Tibetans, to assert their independence.

The Chinese, however, enforced their claim to Mongolia by an invasion in This was successful, but with Soviet help the Chinese were driven out in Mongolian independence, at least from China, was henceforth under the protection of the Soviet Union. But this also, naturally, made Mongolia subject to Russian experiments in Communism. Stalin's collectivization of agriculture was extended to Mongolia, with the forced settlement of nomads. Many of them, consequently, moved to Chinese Inner Mongolia to escape.

Since , Mongolia, like other post-Soviet states, has been struggling to develop a normal life and government free of police state measures and Russian domination. Jochi, the eldest son had, however, already died; so his sector was actually divided between his own sons, Batu the Blue Horde , Orda the White Horde , and Shiban, later united into the Golden Horde , the most durable of the Mongol regimes.

Tuli Tolui , the youngest son, was given the homeland of Mongolia. And it was the sons of Tuli, after the conquest of Russia, who carried out the greatest subsequent conquests, of the Middle East and China. Although the Mongols, as far as we know, didn't have a tradition of believing such a thing, Genghis launched a campaign that came closer than any other such effort in history to realizing its goal.

What Genghis accomplished himself was mostly to absorb kingdoms in Central Asia that most people would not have heard of anyway, but his sons and grandsons accomplished the conquests of China, Russia, Korea, Iran, and Iraq -- just to mention the most famous places. Devastating defeats were also inflicted on Poland, Hungary, and Turkey, but growing feuds between increasingly more estranged cousins began to divert energies from more distant permanent conquests.

Sometimes, as in the invasions of Japan , extraordinary circumstances, in that case the "Divine Wind" kami kaze typhoons, foiled Mongol conquest. But the ultimate enemy of the Mongols was the Mongols themselves. Whereas the average length of a generation of European royalty from Charlemagne to Queen Elizabeth about 40 generations was nearly 30 years, the Mongol generations turned over in only about 20 years.

The Chingizids tended to drink themselves to death; and once no longer centered on the steppe, they lost their military edge. Two Emperors did not reign long enough to be acknowledged by Chinese historians. Altan Khan looks like the last vigorous and effective Mongolian ruler, striking blows against China that deeply discomfited the Ming government. Yet rebellions began early in Altan Khan's reign that he was never able to put down; and his direct successors rulled a state Tumed that simply shared in the breakup of the country.

Mongolia would no longer be a threat to China, but Manchuria would soon conquer China and Mongolia as well. The most effective of the fragmented kingdoms seems to be that of Khalka. Since Mongol authority was asserted over Tibet in , I assume that the Khans of Khalka were responsible. This gave the Manchus a pretext for claiming authority over Tibet after their conquest of Mongolia.

This was actually a poor way to write Mongolian, since such alphabets do not represent vowels. The system he developed was made official and compulsory in Despite the inadequacies of the Uighur alphabet, the system of 'Phags-pa did not catch on.

Official documents using it survive, but the older script survived and returned to dominance until the Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in Communist Mongolia. With other post-Soviet states turning to traditional alphabets or the Latin alphabet, it would be a nice touch for Mongolia to revive the 'Phags-pa system.

This event is of independent interest, since Du'a's name also appears as Tuva , a name that apparently stuck in a small mountainous area north-east of the Altai Mountains. The Republic of Tuva capital Kyzyl was independent for a short period after the fall of the Russian Empire, before being conquered by the Bolsheviks. The Republic even issued stamps that came to the attention of the great physicist, and youthful stamp collector, Richard Feynman. It was also closed to foreigners.

Nevertheless, Feynman spent the last few years of his life trying to arrange a trip there. Unfortunately, he died very shortly before permission for his visit arrived As with some other derivatives of Mongol states, we discover that the modern Tuvan language Tuvinian is actually more closely related to Turkish than to Mongolian.

The end of the Chaghatayids is as obscure as these other issues. Napoleon lost much of his Grand Army in in a retreat from Moscow in the cold and the snow. Hitler was aware of Napoleon's failure, but he expected to conquer Russia before winter set in. However, Hitler got delayed by a campaign against Yugoslavia and then launched forces, not only towards Moscow, but against Leningrad and the Ukraine also.

Thus, as the snow began to fall in , the Germans had barely come within sight of Moscow. They weren't even prepared for winter. The men did not have winter clothing and the summer oil in the tanks actually froze. In light of these events, it is chilling as it were to remember that the Mongols conquered Russia during the winter.

The Mongols liked winter. Frozen rivers and marshes meant that they could ride right over barriers that in the spring or summer would have slowed them down. Their tough Central Asian ponies knew how to dig down through the snow to eat the frozen grass beneath. This all made for a terror unknown to the Russians before or since. What the Russians then called their Mongol conquers was the "Tartars" -- invaders come from Tartarus , the deepest part of Hell.

But then, as the Mongols appeared out of nowhere from the Steppe, arriving from origins far beyond the knowledge of Russians or Persians, no one really knew who they were or where they were from. To Europeans, they seemed like the Scourge of God. Remnants of the Golden Horde passed in to the Crimea, which, as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire as of , held out the longest against Russian power.

Thus, independent Hordes survived in Russia for three centuries, and the Crimea for more than two more. For so long as nomadic military tactics held an advantage, the Golden Horde benefited from it. The day of the nomad had to pass before the Russians gained the upper hand. Crimea survived thanks to the very non-nomadic power of the Ottomans. Russian expansion east would then not be through the steppe but in the Taiga , the dense forestland.

The map at right shows the situation in Moscow has just ceased paying tribute to the Golden Horde The successor Khanates to the Horde are already in place.

As noted, the Crimea is already a vassal of the Ottomans. Note that Shiban, as a son of Jochi, originally had his own division of the Horde an ulus , "patrimony" , as seen in the map above. Thus, on the map of , the Uzbeks have become conspicuous. Their line is given below , as their realm and the Kazakhs succeeded to most of Central Asia until the coming of the Russians.

Some small differences of dates and names remain between the the genealogical diagrams and the tables of rulers above. The remnant domain of the Golden Horde was itself annexed by the Crimea in Otherwise, all would be faced with, and ultimately fall to, the growing power of Russia. Its durability, however, was only due to the protection of the Ottomans. Before Russia could take the Crimea, it would have to defeat the Turks. That would not come until the 18th Century.

Catherine the Great, not Ivan the Terrible, would finish off the last of the Mongols. The Imperial Ambassador to Constantinople, Bubecq , took down sixty words in an unusual language spoken by informants from the Crimea. The language turned out to be Gothic. Goths had been in the Crimea since the 3rd Century AD. It is fortunate that Bubecq was curious about the language, because there is otherwise no surviving evidence of it, and there are no Crimean Goths left now.

There are surviving Crimean Tartars. Stalin became suspicious that they had collaborated with the Germans in World War II, so he deported all of them to Siberia. They are back now, but still rather out of place in the area. They are thus as much living fossils of history as the 16th century Gothic speakers. The physical damage and neglect to Iraq, however, may have ruined foundations of civilization and prosperity that went back to the Sumerians.

Iraq would never again be a center of great power, influence, or culture. This abrupt and astonishing revolution left a number of successor states. All were swept over, but not eliminated, by Tamerlane. But he tended to use Mongol puppet figureheads and did create the last serious nomadic empire. A devoted Moslem, his conquests and massacres were nevertheless almost entirely directed against fellow Moslems. Poor little Georgia had to bear most of his wrath against Christians. Despite what must seem the superfluous slaughter and pointless terror of Tamerlane's campaigns, his was the only historic empire actually founded on the region of Transoxania and cities like Samarkand and Bukhara.

This brought a period of higher culture and architecture to the area. The style of architecture, indeed, passed to the Moghuls. Moving first south into the lands of the old White Horde, they then displaced the Timurids in Transoxania and northern Afghanistan, in part under the pressure of the Kazakhs.


Tradition and culture of states and unnion territories in India, India the biggest democratic country in world consisting of 29 states & 7 union territories having two houses of parliament rajya sabha and lok sabha tourism is the major industry for some states like Jammu & kashmir Goa Kerala Himachal Pradesh. Millions of men in Asia can trace their ancestry years back to Mongolian conqueror Genghis Khan, but what some may find surprising is how the great khan’s lineage over that time has continually been able to produce sons and continue the heritage, according to researchers. Genghis, however, who. The site is for finding a suitable Sunni Muslim Partner. We cover all regions of the world for sunni marriage, muslim marriage and single muslim.

MacAdam The Indo-Mongolian Society of New York Mongolian History-Online Resources. Compiled by the Indo-Mongolian Society of New York in Contents. In , Joseph Deniker said the "Mongol race admits two varieties or subraces: Tunguse or Northern Mongolian and Southern Mongolian". Archaeologist Peter Bellwood claims that the vast majority of people in Southeast Asia, the region he calls the "clinal Mongoloid-Australoid zone", are Southern Mongoloids but have a high degree of .