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Pacatianus Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins. Iotapianus Virtual Catalog bhopal female dating Roman Coins.

Meckler Ohio State University. Marcus Julius Philippus rose from obscure origins to rule for five and one-half years as Rome's emperor. Only sketchy details of his life and reign have survived in the historical record.

One of those details -- his ethnicity -- was latched onto by later historians, who called the emperor by the name Philip the Arab. Philip the Arab seems to have been born sometime during the reign of Septimius Severus. The village was obscure at the time of Philip's birth, though once he became emperor, Philip renamed the community Philippopolis and embarked on a major building campaign.

Little is known of Philip's father, save the name Julius Marinus. This name, however, indicates that the family held Roman citizenship and must have been locally prominent. Nothing is known of Philip's mother. At some point, probably in the s, Philip married Marcia Otacilia Severa.

A son was born by and named Marcus Julius Severus Philippus. Philip's early career is also obscure, though it was undoubtedly helped by that of his brother, Julius Priscus.

Priscus was appointed praetorian prefect by Gordian III and had previously served as prefect of the Roman province of Mesopotamia. If a fragmentary inscription from Rome can be connected to Priscus, Philip's brother rose quickly during Gordian III's reign through a variety of equestrian offices, including procurator of Macedonia, vice prefect of Egypt, and judge at Alexandria.

Priscus' appointment as praetorian prefect probably came at the beginning of the Roman campaign to reconquer upper Mesopotamia in the spring of The success of the campaign must have reflected well on Priscus, and when his colleague Timesitheus who was also Gordian III's father-in-law died the following year, Priscus' brother Philip joined him as praetorian prefect.

On the retreat back up the Euphrates after the Roman defeat at Misikhe, Gordian was killed sometime during the winter sikh professional dating of Most sources state that Philip was involved in Gordian's death; some claim that Philip engineered a mutiny by diverting the grain that was supposed to feed Gordian's troops.

Philip was acclaimed the new emperor and was firmly in control by late winter Philip was more fortunate in his negotiations than Macrinus had been.

Philip made a peace treaty with the Persian king Shapur in which Philip agreed to pay the equivalent of 50 million sesterces, and possibly an annual tribute.

The treaty enabled the new emperor to travel westward to Rome. Priscus is described in one inscription as rector Orientisand he exercised supreme authority over armies and provinces from his headquarters in Antioch. The following year the Carpi, a people native to the northern bank of the lower Danube, crossed the river and attacked settlements in the Roman province of Moesia today, northern Bulgariawhere Philip's brother-in-law Severianus had been put in command.

Victory was proclaimed inbut the legions in Moesia and Pannonia were dissatisfied with the war's results. The armies there revolted, proclaiming Tiberius Claudius Marinus Pacatianus as emperor.

The emperor preferred to pay for an ignominious peace rather than lose an ignominious war. The heavy-handedness of his brother Priscus in collecting taxes in the East caused another revolt, this one led by a man named Iotapianuswho claimed to be a kinsman of Severus Alexander.

Despite growing instability in the provinces, Romans in the year were fascinated by the celebrations of the 1,th anniversary of their city's foundation. The festivities may have been patterned after the Secular Games last held under Septimius Severus free cougar dating review years earlier and included magnificent spectacles for the arena, arab christian dating.

Philip's religious beliefs have garnered the most attention from modern historians. Writing but 75 years after Philip's reign, the Church arab christian dating Eusebius relayed a report that Philip was a Christian who was once compelled by a church official to confess his sins before being allowed to attend an Easter service.

Philip appears indistinguishable from other third-century emperors in his use of pagan symbols and titles. Philip made no improvements in the legal status of Christians or their religion.

Moreover, Philip's alleged Christianity was never corroborated by non-Christian authors. Within six months of the beginning of his reign, Philip had appointed his son as Caesar and heir. Three years later, in the summer ofthe boy was named Augustus and co-ruler, even though he was probably not yet 10 years old.

His mother, arab christian dating, Otacilia Severa, is last named on coins in the yearleading to speculation that she may have died in that year. Nothing is known of the emperor's brother Priscus after the outbreak of Iotapianus' revolt: Iotapianus was eventually defeated and killed in the East, as was Pacatianus along the Danube.

The appointment proved a dangerous blunder. The disgruntled soldiers, still eager for decisive leadership and decisive victories, revolted yet again in the late spring of and proclaimed Decius emperor.

Philip marched out from Rome to face the approaching troops of Decius. In late summer, the two armies met outside Verona. Philip's troops were bested, and the emperor either died in the battle or was assassinated by his troops. When news of Philip's defeat and death reached Rome, the praetorian guard murdered Philip's son and colleague. Philip the Arabian remains an enigmatic figure because different authors evaluated free online dating rooms reign with wildly divergent interpretations.

Christian authors of late antiquity praised the man they regarded as the first Christian emperor. Pagan historians saw Philip as indecisive, treacherous and weak.

Our lack of detailed knowledge about the reign makes any analysis highly speculative. Nonetheless, Philip's provincial and administrative background represents continuity with features of Severan government. His career has its closest parallel with that of Macrinusan equestrian from the provinces who, a quarter of a century earlier, capped an administrative career by moving from the office of praetorian prefect to that of emperor.

Military dating the struggle to maintain legitimacy, Philip faced revolts and upheavals in several corners of the empire.

He was able to overcome these challenges for half a decade. The empire remained fundamentally sound and stable during his reign. The great disruptions of the third century were yet to come. Zosimus, New History, 1. Australian National University, ]; James J. Arab christian dating and Harold T. University of Texas, ]. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 6. Walter de Gruyter,pp. Oxford University Press, Pohlsander, "Philip the Arab and Christianity," Historia 29 Peter Lang, arab christian dating,pp.

One would expect a praetorian prefect, the office held by Philip into be at least in his 40s. A year of birth ca. Priscus is described in one petition from the year as "holding consular authority," which may indicate a special appointment as governor of Syria, see Feissel and Gascou, pp.

Firmin Didot, ], pp. The sources have been well sifted by Pohlsander, "Decius. In the ancient and Byzantine sources, several rebellions against the reign of Philip the Arab A.

The usurpations of Mar. Silbannacusprobably near the Rhine frontier, and of Sponsianuspehaps in Transylvania, are only known because of numismatic evidence. The following essay deals separately with IotapianusPacatianusSilbannacus and Sponsianus.

In the end, there will be an attempt to compare these usurpers and to integrate them into the historical context of the third century. Most scholars think he was claiming descent from the Severan dynasty of Emesa in Syria through Severus Alexander. Therefore, Iotapianus may have belonged to the Commagenian royal family which had lost the throne under Vespasian.

According to Zosimus, Iotapianus' rebellion was directed against the taxes raised by C. Iulius Priscus, Philip's brother. Priscus was rector Orientis and governed several provinces in the East. Philip's reign was dating girls near me not popular in Syria. In one passage of the Sibylline Oraclesthe Syrian author shows his jealousy against the flowering of Arabia with the cities Bostra and Philippopolis under Philip.

Iotapianus' revolt should be dated near the end of Philip's reign. The rebellion seems to have ground to a halt while Philip was still emperor Zosimus ; Iotapianus himself was probably not put to death until Decius' reign Victor.

The circumstances under which the rebellion ended are unknown except for the fact that Iotapianus was killed by his own soldiers. It is unknown how or if Philip reacted against the rebellion. The obverse sides show the usurper and give his full name. The reverse sides read Victoria Aug ustishowing Victory with a wreath and a palm.

Although this imagery could refer to a victory of the rebels against Philip's troops, perhaps it is only propaganda claiming "the power of the Emperor to conquer" [[11]]. Iotapianus was not a military usurper like Pacatianus and Decius and arab christian dating led a rebellion of provincials against the tax policy of Rome. He can be seen as a precursor of Uranius Antoninus of Emesa A. The evidence about the reign of Pacatianus is similar in nature to that for the reign of Iotapianus: Cl audius Marinus Pacatianus.

The term can define several military ranks: Bleckmann deduces from this passage that the usurper cannot have been a military commander; moreover, he notes, Zonaras uses the term for officers of low rank.

No causes of the revolt are mentioned in the sources, but the Danube area is known to have been threatened by the Goths. There was a general unrest among the troops generating several rebellions in the region.


The first mention of Arabs is from the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people in eastern and southern Syria , and the north of the Arabian Peninsula. Before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate — , "Arab" referred to any of the largely nomadic and settled Semitic people from the Arabian Peninsula , Syrian Desert , North and Lower Mesopotamia.

This was one of the largest land empires in history. Today, Arabs primarily inhabit the 22 Arab states within the Arab League: The Arab world stretches around 13 million km 2 , from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Indian Ocean in the southeast.

Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can also be found in the global diaspora. Arabs are a diverse group in terms of religious affiliations and practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions. Some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism , and a few individuals, the hanifs , apparently observed monotheism. Arabs have greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and architecture, language , philosophy , mythology, ethics , literature, politics, business, music, dance, cinema , medicine , science and technology [58] in the ancient and modern history.

Arab people are generally known for their generosity and hospitality [59] as well as their beliefs and family values. The earliest documented use of the word "Arab" to refer to a people appears in the Kurkh Monoliths , an Akkadian language record of the ninth century BCE Assyrian conquest of Aram , which referred to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula under King Gindibu , who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria.

The oldest surviving indication of an Arab national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic in using the Nabataean alphabet , which refers to Imru' al-Qays ibn 'Amr as "King of all the Arabs".

The most popular Arab account holds that the word "Arab" came from an eponymous father called Ya'rub who was supposedly the first to speak Arabic. Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani had another view; he states that Arabs were called Gharab "West" by Mesopotamians because Bedouins originally resided to the west of Mesopotamia; the term was then corrupted into "Arab". Yet another view is held by al-Masudi that the word "Arabs" was initially applied to the Ishmaelites of the " Arabah " valley.

In Biblical etymology, "Arab" in Hebrew Arvi comes both from the desert origin of the Bedouins it originally described Arava means wilderness. Some of the settled communities in the Arabian Peninsula developed into distinctive civilizations. Sources for these civilizations are not extensive, and are limited to archaeological evidence, accounts written outside of Arabia, and Arab oral traditions later recorded by Islamic scholars.

Additionally, from the beginning of the first millennium BCE, Southern Arabia was the home to a number of kingdoms, such as the Sabaean kingdom Arabic: According to Arab- Islamic-Jewish traditions , Ishmael was father of the Arabs, to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites.

Some of the names given in these texts are Aramaic , while others are the first attestations of Ancient North Arabian dialects. In fact several different ethnonyms are found in Assyrian texts that are conventionally translated "Arab": Arabi, Arubu, Aribi and Urbi. Many of the Qedarite queens were also described as queens of the aribi. The Hebrew Bible occasionally refers to Aravi peoples or variants thereof , translated as "Arab" or "Arabian.

Medieval Arab genealogists divided Arabs into three groups:. And Ishmael and his sons, and the sons of Keturah and their sons, went together and dwelt from Paran to the entering in of Babylon in all the land towards the East facing the desert. And these mingled with each other, and their name was called Arabs, and Ishmaelites. Jesur was mentioned in Greek inscriptions in the 1st century BCE. Ibn Khaldun 's Muqaddima distinguishes between sedentary Arabian Muslims who used to be nomadic , and Bedouin nomadic Arabs of the desert.

He used the term "formerly nomadic" Arabs and refers to sedentary Muslims by the region or city they lived in, as in Yemenis.

Muslims of Medina referred to the nomadic tribes of the deserts as the A'raab, and considered themselves sedentary, but were aware of their close racial bonds. The term "A'raab" mirrors the term Assyrians used to describe the closely related nomads they defeated in Syria. The two qualities are connected for example in ayat We have made it an Arabic recitation in order that you may understand".

The earliest are written in variants of epigraphic south Arabian musnad script, including the 8th century BCE Hasaean inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, the 6th century BCE Lihyanite texts of southeastern Saudi Arabia and the Thamudic texts found throughout the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai not in reality connected with Thamud. Their early inscriptions were in Aramaic , but gradually switched to Arabic, and since they had writing, it was they who made the first inscriptions in Arabic.

The Nabataean alphabet was adopted by Arabs to the south, and evolved into modern Arabic script around the 4th century. This is attested by Safaitic inscriptions beginning in the 1st century BCE and the many Arabic personal names in Nabataean inscriptions.

From about the 2nd century BCE, a few inscriptions from Qaryat al-Faw reveal a dialect no longer considered proto-Arabic , but pre-classical Arabic. Five Syriac inscriptions mentioning Arabs have been found at Sumatar Harabesi , one of which dates to the 2nd century CE. Arabs arrived in the Palmyra in the late first millennium BCE. Palmyra prospered as part of the Umayyad Caliphate, and its population grew. The Ghassanids increased the Semitic presence in the then Hellenized Syria , the majority of Semites were Aramaic peoples.

Greeks and Romans referred to all the nomadic population of the desert in the Near East as Arabi. The Romans called Yemen " Arabia Felix ". The Lakhmids as a dynasty inherited their power from the Tanukhids , the mid Tigris region around their capital Al-Hira.

They ended up allying with the Sassanids against the Ghassanids and the Byzantine Empire. The Lakhmids contested control of the Central Arabian tribes with the Kindites with the Lakhmids eventually destroying Kinda in after the fall of their main ally Himyar. The Persian Sassanids dissolved the Lakhmid dynasty in , being under puppet kings, then under their direct control.

They returned to Yemen and allied themselves with the Himyarites who installed them as a vassal kingdom that ruled Central Arabia from "Qaryah Dhat Kahl" the present-day called Qaryat al-Faw.

After the death of Muhammad in , Rashidun armies launched campaigns of conquest, establishing the Caliphate , or Islamic Empire, one of the largest empires in history. The Rashidun state was a completely new state and unlike the Arab kingdoms of its century such as the Himyarite , Lakhmids or Ghassanids. In , the Rashidun Caliphate fell into the hands of the Umayyad dynasty and Damascus was established as the empire's capital.

The Umayyads were proud of their Arab identity and sponsored the poetry and culture of pre-Islamic Arabia. They established garrison towns at Ramla , Raqqa , Basra , Kufa , Mosul and Samarra , all of which developed into major cities. Caliph Abd al-Malik established Arabic as the Caliphate's official language in However, the Arabs' higher status among non-Arab Muslim converts and the latter's obligation to pay heavy taxes caused resentment.

Caliph Umar II strove to resolve the conflict when he came to power in He rectified the disparity, demanding that all Muslims be treated as equals, but his intended reforms did not take effect, as he died after only three years of rule. By now, discontent with the Umayyads swept the region and an uprising occurred in which the Abbasids came to power and moved the capital to Baghdad.

Umayyads expanded their Empire westwards capturing North Africa from the Byzantines. Before the Arab conquest, North Africa was conquered or settled by various people including Punics , Vandals and Romans. After the Abbasid Revolution , the Umayyads lost most of their territories with the exception of Iberia. The Abbasids led a revolt against the Umayyads and defeated them in the Battle of the Zab effectively ending their rule in all parts of the Empire with the exception of al-Andalus.

In , the second Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad and declared it the capital of the Caliphate. Unlike the Umayyads, the Abbasids had the support of non-Arab subjects. The Islamic Golden Age was inaugurated by the middle of the 8th century by the ascension of the Abbasid Caliphate and the transfer of the capital from Damascus to the newly founded city of Baghdad. The Abbassids were influenced by the Qur'anic injunctions and hadith such as "The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of martyrs" stressing the value of knowledge.

During this period the Muslim world became an intellectual centre for science, philosophy, medicine and education as the Abbasids championed the cause of knowledge and established the " House of Wisdom " Arabic: The Abbasids ruled for years before they lost their central control when Wilayas began to fracture in the 10th century; afterwards, in the s, there was a revival of their power, which was ended by the Mongols , who conquered Baghdad in and killed the Caliph Al-Musta'sim.

Members of the Abbasid royal family escaped the massacre and resorted to Cairo, which had broken from the Abbasid rule two years earlier; the Mamluk generals taking the political side of the kingdom while Abbasid Caliphs were engaged in civil activities and continued patronizing science, arts and literature.

The Fatimid caliphate was founded by al-Mahdi Billah , a descendant of Fatimah , the daughter of Muhammad, in the early 10th century.

Egypt was the political, cultural, and religious centre of the Fatimid empire. In the Fatimids established the Tunisian city of Mahdia as their new capital. In they shifted their capital to Al-Mansuriya , near Kairouan in Tunisia, and in they conquered Egypt and established Cairo as the capital of their caliphate.

Intellectual life in Egypt during the Fatimid period achieved great progress and activity, due to many scholars who lived in or came to Egypt, as well as the number of books available. Fatimid Caliphs gave prominent positions to scholars in their courts, encouraged students, and established libraries in their palaces, so that scholars might expand their knowledge and reap benefits from the work of their predecessors.

It was not until the 11th century that the Maghreb saw a large influx of ethnic Arabs. Starting with the 11th century, the Arab bedouin Banu Hilal tribes migrated to the West. Having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Berber Zirids for abandoning Shias , they travelled westwards.

The Banu Hilal quickly defeated the Zirids and deeply weakened the neighboring Hammadids. According to some modern historians.

From to , much of the Arab world was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. Arabs did not feel the change of administration because the Ottomans modeled their rule after the previous Arab administration systems. In , Arab intellectuals and politicians from throughout the Levant formed al-Fatat "the Young Arab Society" , a small Arab nationalist club, in Paris.

Its stated aim was "raising the level of the Arab nation to the level of modern nations. Al-Fatat hosted the Arab Congress of in Paris, the purpose of which was to discuss desired reforms with other dissenting individuals from the Arab world. However, as the Ottoman authorities cracked down on the organization's activities and members, al-Fatat went underground and demanded the complete independence and unity of the Arab provinces.

Arabs in modern times live in the Arab world, which comprises 22 countries in Western Asia, North Africa. They are all modern states and became significant as distinct political entities after the fall and defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire — Arab identity is defined independently of religious identity, and pre-dates the spread of Islam , with historically attested Arab Christian kingdoms and Arab Jewish tribes.

Today, however, most Arabs are Muslim, with a minority adhering to other faiths, largely Christianity , but also Druze and Baha'i. Paternal descent plays a strong part in the role of citizenship of an individual and maternal descent also plays an issue. Paternal descent is considered the main source of affiliation in the Arab world when it comes to membership into a kin group or clan. Today, the main unifying characteristic among Arabs is Arabic , a Central Semitic language from the Afroasiatic language family.

Modern Standard Arabic serves as the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing. The Arabs are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people dwelling in the central Arabian Peninsula subjugated by Upper Mesopotamia -based state of Assyria.


Meet new people, make friends and find your soulmate LoveHabibi is for Arabs, Muslims, Arab Christians and likeminded people worldwide looking for friendship, dating . a Arab ethnicity should not be confused with non-Arab ethnicities that are also native to the Arab world. b Not all Arabs are Muslims and not all Muslims are Arabs. An Arab can follow any religion or irreligion. Philip the Arab ( A.D.) Michael L. Meckler Ohio State University.

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